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Bacteriology is the word related to the study of Bacteria which includes vast subject. The basic word bacteria is the common name of single-celled microorganisms which don't have nuclear membrane and are metabolically active.
They divide by binary fission. They are said to be the main cause of many diseases. They appear as the basic simple forms of life which infact are very sophisticated and can adapt themselves very easily to every conditions.
Most of the bacteria multiply in rapid rates and they also can utilize many varieties of hydrocarbon substrates like phenol, rubber and petroleum. We can observe these organisms in both parasitic and free-living forms.
Bacteria can be classified into 5 groups depending on their basic shapes like Spherical(Cocci), Rod (Bacilli), Spiral (Spirilla), Comma (Vibrios) or Corkscrew (Spirochaetes) which can be found existing in single cells, pairs chains or clusters.
As we said earlier bacteria reproduce by binary fission in which first the DNA of the bacterium divides into two and then the cell elongates and splits in to two daughter cells with identical DNA in each cell. This can be said that each daughter cell is a clone of its parent bacterium.
When conditions are favorable some bacteria like Escherichia coli can divide every 20 minutes. That means in just 7 hours one bacteria can generate more than 2 million of bacteria and after one hour we can see the number rising to more than 1.6 million.
This is the main reason why we become ill very fastly when pathogenic microbes enter into our body.
To survive in different atmospheric conditions bacteria adopt many methods in which forming endospores is one of the methods. These are the dormant structures which are extremely resistant to every abnormal physical and chemical conditions like heat, disinfectants and UV radiations. This makes them very difficult to destroy for which we can give the examples like Bacillus anthracis which is the main cause of anthrax.
Bacteriology started by the need to study the food spoiling and germ theory of diseases and spoiling of wine as well. The bacteriological study initially started with the primitive things like identifying the bacteria related with specific diseases.
During this time Koch's postulates helped to a great extent to know the relations between bacteria and specific diseases. Today a vast variety and different causes for disease causing bacteria like Legionnaire's Disease, tuberculosis and toxic shock syndrome are discovered.
As we all know the developments and researches over bacteria have helped in the discovery of many effective vaccines like pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid and also other vaccines like cholera, typhoid, and plague vaccines which also found to have side effects.
Another major development in this trait is the antibiotics. These antimicrobial substances could not eradicate the bacteria completely but they are more effective to be used as therapeutic tools in the cure of different diseases.
Then arised a new problem that the bacteria has increased their resistance towards the antibiotics. Improvements in sanitation and water purification have a great effect to reduce the bacterial infections but there are still so many bacterial diseases left unfound.